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Last Edited03/05/2019
(People) PeopleGroup In 1662 Sousoa was the leader of the Chainouquas, a group said (in 1657) by Van Riebeeck as living toward the East and that they were named for their great chief Chaynunqua who was very rich in cattle. However it subsequently emerges in the record that Sousoa was the leader in the first years of colonial settlement. It is possible that the reference to Chaynunqua was an assumption by Van Riebeeck who had not yet met Sousoa. The following individuals were numbered among this people: Chaihantima, Dorhá, Hanhumma and Oocktis Koukoua.2 
Names in the record, in publications, etc.30 October 1657, the name of Chainouquas was written in the record as Chainunquas.3
Notes15 November 1657 Krotoa of the Goringhaicona interpreted during a visit of a high ranking member of the Chainouquas who had received gifts of copper, tobacco, an axe, and chains. A dispute arose about whether this individual was the king or not and gifts of copper and tobacco were also given to two other senior ranking individuals. The dispute drew in the other interpreters Otegno of the Goringhaiqua and Autshumao of the Goringhaicona both of whom then also received gifts. In the ensuing exchanges, Herry (Ausshumao) became even more angry when it was suggested that Chobona of the Chobona was the overall leader of the Khoe in the region, rather than Gogosoa of the Goringhaiqua.4


  1. [S647] Precis of the archives of the Cape of Good Hope, Letters Despatched 1652-1662 to which are added land grants, attestations, Journal of voyage to Tristan da Cunha, names of freemen, &c. Vol III, H.C.V. Leibrandt; (Cape Town, South Africa: W.A. Richards & Sons, Government Printers, 1900), p.239-240. Hereinafter cited as Precis of the archives of the Cape of Good Hope.
  2. [S646] Precis of the archives of the Cape of Good Hope, JVR Journal II, 1656-1658, H.C.V. Leibrandt; (Cape Town, South Africa: W. A. Richards & Sons, Government Printers, Castle Street, 1897), pp.121. Hereinafter cited as Precis of the archives, JVR Journal II 1656-1658.
  3. [S405] H.B. Thom, editor, Journal of Jan van Riebeeck Vol II 1656-1658 translated by J. Smuts from the original Dutch, (Cape Town, Amsterdam: A.A. Balkema, 1954), p.81. Hereinafter cited as Journal of Jan van Riebeeck Vol II 1656-1658.
  4. [S405] H.B. Thom editor, Journal of Jan van Riebeeck Vol II 1656-1658, p.88-89.

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