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Last Edited28/01/2018
PeopleGroup* Autshumao was the leader of the Goringhaicona, a very small group of Khoen which Van Riebeeck said comprised about 18 men. The number of women and children was not recorded, but if each of these men had a wife and just one child, the group would have numbered around 54. They occupied just four or five huts and they lived and mostly survived off beachcombing on the Cape peninsula at the time the VOC settlement began. They also traded with passing ships and later also with the settlers. Within a few years their numbers grew and they also became stock owners, and were employed by the settlers to do menial work. They were also known as the Watermans. The Goringhaicona included the following indidividuals: Khaik Ana Ma Koukoa, Krotoa, Hemoao Khatimaä, Hum Tha Saankhumma, Khamy, Khonomao Namtesij, Lubbert, Beijmakoukoa-Danhou, Pn, Pn, Boubo and Thoe Maka Koa.2 
Occupation*From at least 1652 until his death in 1663 Autshumao was the leader of the Goringhaicona.3,4 
PeopleGroup* The Goringhaicona and Goringhaiqua, as also the Gorachouqua, were one people under the overall leadership of Gogosoa of the Goringhaiqua.1 
Names in the record, in publications, etc.After 1652, the name of Goringhaicona was written in the record as Goringhaikona.4


  1. [S846] I. Schapera, editor, The early Cape Hottentots: Olfert Dapper, Willem ten Rhyne en Johannes Gulielmus de
    (http://www.dbnl.org/index.php: DBNL digitale bibliotheek voor de Nederlandse letteren, 2011), Schapera: p.11: footnote 10: Also mentioned in the records as Choeringaina, Goeringaiqua, Goringhoina, etc., a name which Wuras (op cit., 288) translates as 'those who dip water out of fountains,' but which Maingard (op. cit., 111) suggests with more probability as being equivalent to !kurin //aikwa, or 'proud people,' one of the later Korana tribes. Together with the Goringhaikona and Gorachouqua they constituted a single tribe, of which their leader Gogosoa was the principal chief; but it is evident enough from the early records that these different sections were continually bickering and fighting amongst themselves.. Hereinafter cited as The early Cape Hottentots.
  2. [S846] I. Schapera, The early Cape Hottentots, p.9. cf.5,6.
  3. [S364] Editor-in-chief W.J. de Kock Dictionary of South African Biography Vol II. (Pretoria: Human Sciences Research Council, 1972), p.296. Hereinafter cited as Dictionary of SA Biography II.
  4. [S846] I. Schapera, The early Cape Hottentots, Schapera: p.9: footnote 6: In the first years of the Cape settlement the accepted leader of the Goringhaikona was the famous Herry or Harry (see below, p. 16n); after his death in 1663 they were nominally under the government of Jan Cou (Theal, op. cit., 157), whose Hottentot name was eKhamyf (D. July 8, 1658).

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