A human cell showing its various components, including the mitochondria (9)

Diagram of a typical animal cell.


1. Nucleolus; 2. Nucleus; 3. Ribosome; 4. Cell membrane; 5. Rough endoplasmic reticulum; 6. Golgi apparatus; 7. Cytoskeleton; 8. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum; 9. Mitochondria; 10. Vacuole; 11. Cytoplasm; 12. Lysosome; 13. Centriole

(Diagram from Wikimedia Commons)

Haplogroup N:

Like haplogroup M, N is an enormous, widespread, daughter group of L3 which originated in east Africa, probably in the region of modern day Uganda.  For some time, there was a broad consensus that the N mutation occured in the Arabian peninsula sometime after L3 dispersed from Africa when there were land bridges at the modern day Arabian sea and Strait of Hormuz.

Now, however, one school of thought contends the mutation occurred in Africa prior to dispersal and that N therefor originated on the African continent from where it migrated to the Arabian peninsula. From there there was a further dispersal along the coastal route via the ancient land bridge at the Strait of Hormuz, around the Indian subcontinent to Bengal, and that it then spread in many directions including southwards to south east Asia.

Whatever the final conclusion on its precise origin, what is known is that N and its daughter groups, sub-groups, clades and sub-clades are still, among other locations, found today in the countries of south east Asia.

Catharina de Beer and haplogroup N

HVR1 mtDNA tests have typed as haplogroup N a documented direct matrilineal 8 x great-grand-daughter of Catharina de Beer - the putative daughter of Iba van Timor.   HVR, or hypervariable regions, are locations on an individual's mtDNA where mutations have occurred. Further testing is being done to determine the descendant's HVR2 mutations, which might refine the typing and show her mtDNA to actually be one of the N daughter groups.  This could shed more light on the origins of Catharina de Beer.  (An earlier version of this page stated that a haplogroup N individual currently lives in Flores.  I misread the entry - in fact Flores is the maiden name of the individual's mother.)


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