Jackie Joy van Angola1

M, #6824, b. 1646/47

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NGK (Cape Town) Baptisms 1665-1695NGK (Cape Town) Baptisms 1665-1695
NGK (Cape Town) Marriages1665-1695NGK (Cape Town) Marriages 1665-1695
Last Edited04/03/2016
BirthOrigin*Jackie was from Angola and was perhaps born there in 1646/47. He was said to be 12 or 13 years old in 1659.1,2 
BaptismJackie Joy van Angola was baptized on 13 October 1679 Nederduitsch Gereformeerde Kerk, (Cape Town), de Caep de Goede Hoop. He is the first and only manumitted Angola slave to be baptised at the Cape as an adult.2,3 
Marriage*He married Maria Everts, daughter of Evert van Guinea and Anna van Guinea, on 5 November 1679 (Cape Town).4
 
(Slave) ShipVoyage On 14 October 1657 the Amersfoort departed Vlie enroute to de Caep de Goede Hoop where it docked on 28 March 1658. With more than half the journey completed, on 23 January 1658, probably off the coast of Angola, the Amersfoort sighted a Portuguese slaver with 500 slaves on board. After a 24-hour chase, the vessel was captured, and 250 slaves were taken aboard the Amersfoort for the journey to the Cape. The crippled Portuguese vessel was abandoned to whatever fate might befall her, 250 slaves and her crew.

Of those, when the Amersfoort heaved to in Table Bay two months later, only 174 had made it alive, most them, according to Jan van Riebeeck "girls and small boys" - among them were Jackie Joy van Angola.5,6,7 
(Slave) InventoryRoeloff's estate was inventoried on 27 March 1663 Cabo de Goede Hoop. Three unnamed Angolan slaves were included as among his possessions. They were probably three of the following four slaves: Thomas Keuken van Angola, Domingo van Angola, Maaij Claesje van Angola and Jackie Joy van Angola.8,9 
Names in the record, in publications, etc.13 October 1679, the name of Jackie was written in the record as Gratias Maialas van Angola.
5 November 1679, the name of Jackie was written in the record as Grusias van Angola.
Vrijbriewen and Burgher StatusJackie Joy van Angola became a burgher on 13 October 1679, in Dutch vryburgher or vrijburgher, initially a status in which a soldier or other employee of the VOC was released from their contractual obligations to the VOC and permitted to farm, become a tradesman, or work for others. Subsequently some individuals, including the Huguenot refugees, were brought to the Cape specifically to farm and were burghers from the time of their arrival de Caep de Goede Hoop.2
Slave TransactionsSometime between 28 March 1658 and 1 October 1658 Thomas Christoffel Müller and Jochum Elbertsz: acquired ownership of Jackie Joy van Angola and Jan Meeuw van Angola.10,11
On 1 October 1658 Pieter Rob, Pauwels Das, Jan Meeuw van Angola and Jackie Joy van Angola were put up as security in a skuldbrief by Juriaen Jansz:, Gerrit Harmens and Thomas Christoffel Müller in favour of the wife of the commander Maria de la Queillerie. This was for a loan of f 300 at ¾% per month. In addition Jansz:, Hermanusz: and Muller included as security their current two vehicles [wagons?] as well any they may acquire in the future. The payment in the first month was excused, thereafter they were to make monthly payments until the original amount, plus interest, was repaid. Presumably they carried out the agreement, because the skuldbrief was cancelled on 1 February 1660.10
On 18 September 1659 Oude Hans van Guinea and Gegeima van Guinea were given by Johan Anthoniszoon van Riebeeck to Jochum Elbertsz:, Thomas Christoffel Müller and Gerrit Harmens in exchange for Jackie Joy van Angola and Jan Meeuw van Angola.12,13
On 1 May 1662 Jackie Joy van Angola was sold by Johan Anthoniszoon van Riebeeck to Roeloff de Man.14,15
On 11 July 1678 Domingo Aapekint was sold by Martinus van Banchem to Jackie Joy van Angola, for Rds. 35.16,17
8 March 1679 Claes van Tuticorin owned by Jackie Joy van Angola was sold by Martinus van Banchem to an unknown person , for Rds. 40. Van Banchem was acting on behalf of Jackie Joy van Angola.18,19
On 10 January 1680 Jacob Caste van Bengale was sold by Dirck Jansz Smient to Gratias Maialas van Angola, for Rds. 90. I assume this to be the same slave sold by Smient in 1678 and that he reverted to Smient's ownership due to non-payment. This interpretation is offered with a view toward further discovery in the record.20
Slave EmancipationsJackie Joy van Angola and Isabel van Angola were emancipated by Henrick van Zuerwaarden, after 15 May 1672 de Caep de Goede Hoop, this was a testamentory manumission.21
On 23 May 1680 Jacob Caste van Bengale was emancipated by Gratias Maialas van Angola, for payment of enige penning and in recognition of good and faithful service. Böeseken records that a second slave, Thomas, was emancipated at the same time, but Hattingh disputes this.22,23

Citations

  1. [S418] Anna J. Böeseken, Slaves and Free Blacks at the Cape 1658-1700 (Cape Town: Tafelberg, 1977), p. 125: 18.9.1659, I p. 127: "Oude Hans and Jajenne" both from Guinea, belonging to Jan van Riebeeck, are exchanged by him for Jackie Joy and Jan Meeuw from Angola, respectively 12 and 13 years old, who had been the property of Thomas Muller and Jochem Elbertsz.. Hereinafter cited as Slaves and Free Blacks at the Cape 1658-1700.
  2. [S397] NGK G1 1/1, Nederduitsch Gereformeerde Kerk, Kerken Boek (Bapt.), 1665-1695: 1679
    den 13 October Jackie, of Gratias Maialas van Angola, vryburger, transcribed by Richard Ball, Norfolk, England, (May 2006), Genealogical Society of South Africa, eGSSA Branch http://www.eggsa.org/. Hereinafter cited as Nederduitsch Gereformeerde Kerk, Kerken Boek (Bapt.).
  3. [S810] Mansell Upham 'At Earth's Extremest End… Op 't eijnde van de Aerd … The genealogical impact of the 'Angola' & 'Guinea' slaves at the Cape of Good Hope in the 17th century', First Fifty Years, Uprooted Lives - Unfurling the Cape of Good Hope's Earliest Colonial Inhabitants (1652-1713), (http://e-family.co.za/ffy/ui66.htm), August 2014. "As free-black he takes the unprecedented step of being the 1st - and only – ‘Angola’ or ‘Guinea’ slave to be baptized at the Cape (13 October 1679) as an adult and as a burgher."
  4. [S392] NGK G1 1/1, Nederduitsch Gereformeerde Kerk, Kerken Boek (Mar), 1665-1695: Anno 1679
    den 5.November
    Grusias van Angola alias Jackie, met Maria Everts van de Cabo de Boa Esperance, transcribed by Richard Ball, Norfolk, England, (May 2006), Genealogical Society of South Africa, eGSSA Branch http://www.eggsa.org/. Hereinafter cited as Nederduitsch Gereformeerde Kerk, Kerken Boek (Mar).
  5. [S665] Mansell Upham 'Johanna Kemp - An enquiry into the ancestry of the Cape-born Johanna Kemp (c. 1689-1778) - wife of Jacob Krüger (from Sadenbeck)', First Fifty Years, Uprooted Lives - Unfurling the Cape of Good Hope's Earliest Colonial Inhabitants (1652-1713), (This article is under review), March 2012. "This was followed by the arrival of the Amersfoort (March 1658) offloading a cargo of mostly Brazil-bound Angola slave children (170 of whom 125 were not sent to Batavia) captured from the Portuguese off the coast of Brazil (sometime in January 1658)..."
  6. [S646] Precis of the archives of the Cape of Good Hope, JVR Journal II, 1656-1658, H.C.V. Leibrandt; (Cape Town, South Africa: W. A. Richards & Sons, Government Printers, Castle Street, 1897), p.113; March 28th. N. W. breeze. The Amersfoort casts anchor; had 323 men on her, 29 dead and 30 sick. The weakest brought on shore and exchanged for others. Was provided with refreshments for the crew and the slaves who were brought on shore, already reduced to 170 in number. Many of them still very ill; most of them girls and small boys, from whom for the next 4 or 5 years very little can be got.. Hereinafter cited as Precis of the archives, JVR Journal II 1656-1658.
  7. [S522] André van Rensburg, "Capensis (The Amersfoort)," October 2000. Hereinafter cited as "The Amersfoort."
  8. [S418] Anna J. Böeseken, Slaves and Free Blacks at the Cape 1658-1700, p. 126. 27.3.1663, 11, p. 67: Roelof de Man died on the 6th of March 1663. The inventory of his possessions was signed on the 27th of March. One item was given as "drie Angoolse sla ven en slavinnen".
  9. [S853] J.L. (Leon) Hattingh, "Kaapse noteriële stukke waarin slawe van vryburgers en amptenare vermeld word (1658 - 1730? 1670)", Kronos - Kaapse noteriële stukke waarin slawe van vryburgers en amptenare vermeld word (1658 - 1730? 1670) 15 (1988): 27.3.1663     CTD 2, p.66
    Inventaris van die boedel van Roelof de Man, oorlede op 6 Maart [1662] en in lewe onderkoopman en tweede in bevel aan die Kaap, waarvan die laaste inskrywing van 'n lang lys besittings lees: ‘drie angoolse slaven en slavinnen’. [Geen name vermeld.]. Hereinafter cited as "Kaapse noteriële stukke waarin slawe van vryburgers en amptenare vermeld word (1658 - 1730? 1670)."
  10. [S853] J.L. (Leon) Hattingh, "Kaapse noteriële stukke waarin slawe van vryburgers en amptenare vermeld word (1658 - 1730? 1670)", 1.10.1658 CTD I, p.108
    Jurrien Jansz van Amsterdam, Gerrit Hermanusz van Deventer en Tomas Cristoffel Muller van Leypsigh, asook hul vennoot Jochum Elbert van Amsterdam, almal vryburgers, skuld Maria de la Quellerije, huisvrou van kommandeur Jan van Riebeecq, f300 wat hulle van haar geleen het teen driekwart persent rente per maand, die eerste maand daarvan verskoon. Hulle beloof om maandeliks te betaal tot dat die skuld en rente betaal is en stel as pand hulle huidige twee en toekomstige vaartuie, de Pogingen en Zeeleeuw, asook hulle vier slawe, Pieter Rob, Pauwels Das, Jan Meeu en Jacque Jooij. [Kantnota: 1.2.1660 gerojeer.]
  11. [S418] Anna J. Böeseken, Slaves and Free Blacks at the Cape 1658-1700, pp. 13, 125: 18.9.1659, I p. 127: "Oude Hans and Jajenne" both from Guinea, belonging to Jan van Riebeeck, are exchanged by him for Jackie Joy and Jan Meeuw from Angola, respectively 12 and 13 years old, who had been the property of Thomas Muller and Jochem Elbertsz.
  12. [S418] Anna J. Böeseken, Slaves and Free Blacks at the Cape 1658-1700, p. 125: 18.9.1659, I p. 127: "Oude Hans and Jajenne" both from Guinea, belonging to Jan van Riebeeck, are exchanged by him for Jackie Joy and Jan Meeuw from Angola, respectively 12 and 13 years old, who had been the property of Thomas Muller and Jochem Elbertsz. [DR: Jajenne was also known as Lobbetje.]
  13. [S853] J.L. (Leon) Hattingh, "Kaapse noteriële stukke waarin slawe van vryburgers en amptenare vermeld word (1658 - 1730? 1670)", 18.9.1659      CTD I, p.127 [Verlore]
    Jan van Riebeeck ruil met die vry Saldanhavaarders, Tomas Christoffel Muller, Gerrit Harmansz van Deventer en Jochem Elberts van Amsterdam (elkeen met ‘n derde aandeel) ‘n sekere Guineese slaaf en slavin, Oude Hans en sy vrou Jajenne, waarteen die Saldanhavaarders Thomas Muller en Jochum Elberts, versterk deur hul makker Gerrit Harmansz: twee Angolese slawe, Jan Meeu en Jackie Joij, 10 en 12/13 jaar oud, aanbied.
  14. [S418] Anna J. Böeseken, Slaves and Free Blacks at the Cape 1658-1700, p. 125: l.5.1662, l, pp. 301-302: Jacqje from Angola, sold by Jan van Riebeeck to
    Roelof de Man.
  15. [S853] J.L. (Leon) Hattingh, "Kaapse noteriële stukke waarin slawe van vryburgers en amptenare vermeld word (1658 - 1730? 1670)", 1.5.1662      CTD I, p.301
    Jan van Riebeeck, kommandeur, verkoop aan Roeloff de Man, onder-koopman, die Angolese slaaf Jacqje. [Geen ouderdom of bedrag vermeld. Hierdie is ‘n afskrif]
    1.5.1662     CTD I, p.302 [Verlore]
    Jan van Riebeeck, kommandeur, verkoop aan Roeloff de Man, onder-koopman, die Angolese slaaf Jacqje. [Hierdie is die oorspronklike van die voorgaande.]
  16. [S418] Anna J. Böeseken, Slaves and Free Blacks at the Cape 1658-1700, p.136. 11.7.1678: Domingo Aapekint (9/10) from Madagascar, sold by Marthinus van Banchem to "den borger" Jackie from Angola for Rds. 35.
  17. [S607] J.L. (Leon) Hattingh, "Kaapse notariële stukke waarin slawe van vryburgers en amptenare vermeld word (II), Die tweede Dekade 1671-1680", Kronos (Die notariële stukke II) 15 (1999): 11.7.1678               TS 3, g.p.
    Ms. Van Banchem, onderkoopman en winkelier in diens, verkoop aan burger Jackje van Angola die slaaf Domingo Aapekint van Madagaskar, 9 of 10 jaar, vir 35 Rds.. Hereinafter cited as "Die notariële stukke II."
  18. [S418] Anna J. Böeseken, Slaves and Free Blacks at the Cape 1658-1700, p.137. 8.3.1679: Claes from Tuticorin, opposite Ceylon (15/16), sold by Marthinus van Banchem on behalf of "den vrijborger" Jackie from Angola for Rds. 40.
  19. [S607] J.L. (Leon) Hattingh, "Die notariële stukke II", 8.3.1679          TS 2, g.p.
    M van Banchem, onderkoopman alhier, verkoop aan die vryburger Jackie van Angola die slaaf Claes van Tuticorin op Ceylon, omtrent 15/16 jaar oud, vir 40 Rds.
  20. [S418] Anna J. Böeseken, Slaves and Free Blacks at the Cape 1658-1700, p.138; 10.1.1680: Jacob from an unknown origin sold by Dirck Jansz Smient to Grasias from Angola, "vrijborger alhier", for Rds. 90.
  21. [S810] Mansell Upham 'UL 20 At Earth's Extremest End…', Uprooted Lives - Unfurling the Cape of Good Hope's Earliest Colonial Inhabitants (1652-1713), "He is promised his freedom - together with Isabella van Angola - on the demise (1672) of his patron the free-tailor H(e)inrich H(e)inrichssen [Zuerwaerden] (from Sürwürden [Oldenborg] aka Hendrik Snijer (c. 1635-1672). According to their master’s inventory, his master had promised to free both him and Isabella on his death. There is, however, no mention of any children for Isabella. Their master dies (15 May 1672). Jacqje Joij and Isabella are subsequently freed. [Upham cites: CA: MOOC 23/5, nos. 19-21 (Staat en Inventaris & Taxatie van Hendrick van Zuijrwaarden & verclaaring van Margaritha Frans: Meekhoff, 15 May 1672) which is not available on the Tanap.]"
  22. [S606] J.L. (Leon) Hattingh, "A.J. Böeseken se Addendum van Kaapse slawe-verkoopstransaksies: Foute en regstellings", Kronos (Foute en regstellings) 9 (1984): Op 23.5.1680 vind volgens Böeseken die volgende plaas: “Jacob and Thomas, two slaves belonging to Gracias of Angola, manumitted by him. No details given”. Inderdaad het Grasias (sic) van Angola sy slaaf Jacob, en ook net Jacob alleen, vrygestel. Jacob se naam word, soos dit gebruiklik was, in die document gevolg deur die woorde: “geboortig van” en dan is “Bengale” doodgetrek. Bokant hierdie doodgetrekte word is iets geskryf wat òf met ‘s C òf met ‘n T begin en wat lyk na Consie of Tomsie. Dit is wat Böeseken dan sommer “Thomas” maak, maar dit is dit beslis nie. Dan gaan die betrokke dokument verder en se dat die vrystelling geskied omdat “gemelte Jacob” aan sy eienaar enige penning gegee het om sy Vryheid te verkry. Hy het ook, staan in die dokument, goeie en getroue diens aan sy lyfheer gelewer, wat dus die addendum se stelling dat geen besonderhede verstrek is nie, heeltemal weerlê. Hierdie document is deur Grasias van Angola self onderteken en wel met vier hoofletters: GRVA. Hierdie handtekening bring mee dat Grasias van Angola, saam met Louis en Anthonij van Bengale, een van die weinige vryswartes uit die tyd was wat op ‘n manier kon skryf. Talle blanke vryburgers kon destyds kwalik ‘n kruisie trek.. Hereinafter cited as "Foute en regstellings."
  23. [S418] Anna J. Böeseken, Slaves and Free Blacks at the Cape 1658-1700, p.138. 23.5.1680: Jacob and Thomas, two slaves belonging to Gracias of Angola, manumitted by him. No details given.
 

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