Krotoa of the Goringhaicona1

F, #8000, b. circa 1643, d. 29 July 1674
Mother*Pn of the Goringhaicona2 b. c 1610

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NGK (Cape Town) Baptisms 1665-1695NGK (Cape Town) Baptisms 1665-1695
Last Edited15/07/2015
Birth*Krotoa of the Goringhaicona was born circa 1643 at Robben Island in de Caep de Goede Hoop.3,4
 
BaptismKrotoa of the Goringhaicona was baptized on 3 May 1662 (Cape Town), de Caep de Goede Hoop. The baptism was witnessed by Roeloff de Man, Pieter van der Stael and Dom:e Petrus Sijbelius. The baptism was performed by Dom:e Petrus Sijbelius.5,6 
Marriage*She married Sr. Pieter van Meerhof on 2 June 1664 (Cape Town).7,8,4
 
Death*She died on 29 July 1674 Robben Island, de Caep de Goede Hoop.9
 

Family 1

Sr. Pieter van Meerhof b. c 1640, d. b 27 Feb 1668
Children

Family 2

Children
Names in the record, in publications, etc.1 September 1666, the name of Krotoa was written in the record as Eva.4
Krotoa of the Goringhaicona was also known as Eva Meerhoff.10
NotesIf you are interested in knowing more about this founding mother, you should read Mansell Upham's article available here: In a kind of custody - for Eva's sake... Who speaks for KROTOA?
Everything we know about the Khoe and San (Bushmen) in the first decades of the settlement at the Cape, comes from records (journals, letters, etc.) written by members of the settler population. We do not have the words, perspectives, or knowledge of these original people, except as quoted by the settlers who did not know their language, and who routinely commented on their lifestyle, customs and traditions as individuals who clearly saw themselves as superior. They often wrote with disdain, suspicion and prejudice, and if the expected action did not materialise and confirm the suspicion/prejudice, this was frequently turned on its head, to show ill-intent on the part of the indigene(s). A complete picture never emerges. Intrepretation of these records is therefor always going to be constrained by this lack of balance.
Slave TransactionsOn 23 October 1669 Jan Vos, owned by the widow of Pieter van Meerhoff, Krotoa of the Goringhaicona, was placed in the care of the Church Council.11
Governor's JournalOn 22 November 1663 Zacharias Wagenaer noted in his journal: This morning we were told that our interpretess Krotoa of the Goringhaicona who had disappeared last Friday with both her children, without saying a word, was staying in the country with a freeman named Thielman Hendricx , whose house is situated right in the way leading to the aforesaid Hottentoos; but as her brother-in-law, Oedasoa, takes little interest in her (as it is said) we doubt whether we shall fetch her back, or leave her there, as this lewd vixen (die lichtvaerdige prije) has often played us this trick, throwing aside her clean and neat clothes, and instead, using stinking old cattle hides, just like all other dirty Hottentoo women do.12

Citations

  1. [S550] Mansell Upham 'In a kind of custody: For Eva's sake; who speaks for Krotoa' 4 August 2010, "p.6."
  2. [S404] H.B. Thom, editor, Journal of Jan van Riebeeck Vol I 1652-1655 translated by J. Smuts from the original Dutch, (Cape Town, Amsterdam: A.A. Balkema, 1954), p.175. Hereinafter cited as Journal of Jan van Riebeeck Vol I 1652-1655.
  3. [S550] Mansell Upham 'In a kind of custody.' "p.6, c. 1643-1674."
  4. [S397] NGK G1 1/1, Nederduitsch Gereformeerde Kerk, Kerken Boek (Bapt.), 1665-1695: ao 1666
    den 1e Sept: een soontie van Sr Pieter Meerhof en Eva syn huysvrouw wiert genaemt Salomon de getuygen waren Lydia Lacus Joannes Koon en Pieter Schenckenbergh, transcribed by Richard Ball, Norfolk, England, (May 2006), Genealogical Society of South Africa, eGSSA Branch http://www.eggsa.org/. Hereinafter cited as Nederduitsch Gereformeerde Kerk, Kerken Boek (Bapt.).
  5. [S654] Mansell Upham 'What can't be cured, must be endured … Cape of Good Hope - first marriages & baptisms (1652-1665)', January 2012, Den 3:en d:o heeft dom:e Sijbelius wederom een predikatie gedaen, ende gedoopt een bejaarde vrous persoon de eerste van dese ingeborene lantsluiden
    Meij anno 1662
    lantsluiden, genaemt Hottentoos, is genaemt met den naem Eva de getuijen sijn Roelof de Man, ondercoopman, en tweede persoon van deser fortresse, en Pieter vander Stael kranckbesoeck:r mede van deser fortresse."
  6. [S550] Mansell Upham 'In a kind of custody.' "p.6, She was the Cape's first indigene to be baptized (3 May 1662 as "Eva") and to marry according to Christian rites (2 June 1664)."
  7. [S654] Mansell Upham 'What can't be cured, must be endured … Cape of Good Hope - first marriages & baptisms (1652-1665)' "Monday 2 June 1664: Pieter [van] Meerhoff (from Copenhagen [Zealand/Sjaelland, Denmark]) & Eva [born Krotoa of Goringhaicona clan]."
  8. [S550] Mansell Upham 'In a kind of custody.' "p.6, She was the Cape's first indigene to be baptized (3 May 1662 as "Eva") and to marry according to Christian rites (2 June 1664)."
  9. [S550] Mansell Upham 'In a kind of custody.' "p.6, Detained and banished without trial to Robben Island. Died there (29 July 1674) aged 31 years."
  10. [S397] NGK G1 1/1, Nederduitsch Gereformeerde Kerk, Kerken Boek (Bapt.): ao 1673
    Den 6 August's
    Een soontje van Eva Meerhoff ................ wiert genaemt Anthonij, 1665-1695, Genealogical Society of South Africa, eGSSA Branch http://www.eggsa.org/
  11. [S418] Anna J. Böeseken, Slaves and Free Blacks at the Cape 1658-1700 (Cape Town: Tafelberg, 1977), pp. 127-128.23.10.1669, III, p. 303: Jan Vos, a slave belonging to the widow of Jan [Pieter] van Meerhoff, was placed in the care of the Church Council. In the margin a note added on 1.1.1670 states that Jan Vos had been hired out to Jan Verhagen for one month.. Hereinafter cited as Slaves and Free Blacks at the Cape 1658-1700.
  12. [S574] H.C.V. Leibbrandt Compiler, (Castle Street, Cape Town: W.A. Richards & Sons, 1901). Hereinafter cited as Journal 1662-1670 - Zacharias Wagenaer.
  13. [S605] Mansell G. Upham, "Who were the children of Eva Meerhoff", Capensis 4/1998 [Upham ... Eva's children] 4/1998 (November 1998): p.14. Hereinafter cited as "Eva's Children."
  14. [S687] VC 603, Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk, baptisms. Cape Archives Verbatim Copies, (1665-1696), Western Cape Archives and Records Service, Roeland Street, Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa: [ao 1666]
    den 12 Sept: een soontje van Sr Pieter Meerhof en Eva syn huysvrouw genaemt Salomon; de getuigen ward Lydia Lacus, Joannes Koon en Pieter Klinckenbergh
    [Thanks to Mansell Upham for clarifying this transcription]. Photocopy image thanks to Mansell Upham. Hereinafter cited as Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk, baptisms.
  15. [S687] VC 603, Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk, baptisms, 1665-1696, Western Cape Archives and Records Service: [ao 1670]
    23 Novb'. Een soontje van Eva wiert genaamt Jéronimus, tot getùige stont Joannis a Bolten als School meester.
 

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